Can dogs look embarrassed? Sad? Happy? Or are those expressions a projection of what the owner expects to see?
I think dogs are smarter than some people believe. I also think they are not as smart as their owners maintain. Dogs have a sense of right and wrong, are capable of developing (or adapting to) a routine and are capable of manipulation. They can do all this with the mental capacity of a three- year-old child. Needless to say, expressions of those abilities are necessarily limited.
The premise of the article is that domestic dogs have muscles that control the area around the eyes that are either undeveloped or missing in wolves. These muscles allow dogs to change expressions, “puppy dog eyes.”
I recall watching one of those dog documentaries at 2 am. The film makers claimed that dogs domesticated themselves. They also engaged in selective breeding to allow them to fit into human society. Think about it.